Yetenek (ability), kapasite (capacity), olasılık (possibility), istek (request) Ve izin (permission) ifade eder. Şimdiki ve gelecek zamanları gösterir.
A — ABILITY – CAPACITY (Yetenek – Kapasite): Bu anlamda kullanıldığında CAN = BE ABLE TO olur.
1 — I am sure that you can swim well, because you live near the seaside.
2 — My sister can play the piano, but I can’t.
My sister is able to play the piano, but I am not able to.
3 — I believe that my father can buy a new car next year.
I believe that my father will be able to buy a new car next year.
B — POSSIBILITY (Olasılık):
Bu anlamda kullanıldığı zaman BE ABLE TO ile yer değiştirmez.
1 — It can rain in August.(possible)
2 — It can’t snow in August.(not possible)
3 — She can be here any moment. (possible)
2 — She can’t be here after this hour, (not possible)
3 — This car can’t be so expensive, (not possible)
Yukarıda CAN’T BE ile yapılan örneklerde, dikkat edilirse olumsuz anlamda güçlü bir olasılık ifade edildiği görülebilir.
MUST yardımcısı olumlu cümlelerde gülçü bir olasılık ifade ederken, CAN’T BE de olumsuz cümlelerde aynı güçte fakat olumsuz yönde bir olasılığı ifade eder.
1 — Look at that woman. She can’t be German. She must be Japan.
(Su kadına bakın. O kesinlikle Alman olamaz. muhakkak Japon’dur.)
2 — His marks are very good. He must be a very good student. He can’t be a bad student.
(Notları çok iyi. Muhakkak iyi bir öğrencidir. Kötü bir öğrenci olamaz.)
3 — This news can’t be true.
(Bu haber doğru olamaz.)
C — REQUEST PERMISSION (İstek-İzin):
Bu anlamçla kullanıldığı zaman da BE ABLE TO ile yer değiştirmez.
1 — Can I ask you a question, please? (request)
2 — Yes, you can ask any questions you would like to. (permission)
3 — Can (Can’t) you help me, please? . (request)
4 — Can (Can’t) you give me some water, please?(request)
5 — Can (Can’t) you open the window -for me, please? (request)
6 — Can I help you? (request)
7 — You can’t park your car here: (Permission)
8 — Can I come with you? (request)
9 — Yes, you can, if you want to. (permission)
10 — You can’t buy everything you want.(permission)
D — CAN’T HELP (Elde değil):
Engel olamamak – elde olmamak anlamını veren bir deyimdir. Takip eden fiil daima PRESENT PARTICIPLE (fiil + ing) biçiminde kullanılır.
1 — I can’t help getting angry while I’m teaching him.
(Ona ders verirken, kızmamak elimde değil.)
2 — Doctors can’t help keeping people waiting.
(insanları bekletmek doktorların elinde değildir.)
3 — I can’t help preventing him from smoking cigarettes.
(Sigara içmesine engel olamıyorum.)
|CAN||ABILITY – CAPACITY
(Yetenek – Kapasite)
Can = Be Able To
(İzin – İstek)
A — Aşağıdaki cümleleri CAN kullanarak yeniden yazınız ve anlamlarını karşılaştırınız:
I don’t fly an aeroplane. I am not a pilot.
I can’t fly an aeroplane. I am not a pilot.
1 — My mother cooks very well.
2 — I swim across the river.
3 — Ahmet plays basketball very well.
4 — Do you answer all these questions?
5 — Does your father repair his car?
6 — My little sister doesn’t walk yet.
7 — I don’t drive. I don’t have a driving licence.
8 — Do you help me? I don’t lift this table.
9 — This lesson is very difficult. We don’t understand it.
10 — Nobody flies like birds.
11 — Fishes* don’t fly, and birds don’t swim.
12 — A baby does rit run fast.
13 — Women knit better than men do.
14 — That man is very rich. He buys everything he wants.
15 — I am very tired. I don’t go anywhere tonight.
B- — Aşağıdaki sorulan yanıtlayınız:
1 — A bird can fly. Can we fly?
2 — Mothers can cook. Can babies cook?
3 — We can speak. Can a dog speak?
4 — A pilot can fly an aeroplane. Can a barber fly an aeroplane?
5 — A fish can swim. Can a bird swim?
6 — We can write on the blackboard with chalk. Can we write on the blackboard with a pen?
7 — We can see. Can a blind man see?
8 — A thin boy can run fast. Can a fat boy run fast?
9 — A cat can climb trees. Can a dog climb trees?
10 — A fish can live in the water. Can we live in the water?
* Fish (Balıklar): Aynı türden olmak koşulu ile Fish sözcüğü çoğul anlam taşır (a fish = bir balık). Fakat değişik türdeki balıklardan söz ederken fishes demek gerekir.
C — Aşağıdaki boş yerlere CAN veya CAN’T yazarak cümlenin anlamını tamamlayınız:
1 — This tea is too hot. I ………… drink it.
2 — This problem is too difficult. Nobody………… solve it.
3 — I haven’t studied this lesson. I…………give the answer.
4 — They don’t sell any cigarettes here. Where ………… I find some?
5 — The weather is veiy nice, so we…………go on a picnic.
6 — They have much money. They ………… buy this car.
7 — The weather is too cold. We ………… go swimming.
8 — You know the answer, so you ………… tell us now.
9 — This dress is very expensive and she doesn’t have much money. She ………… buy it.
10 — You have got your driving licence at last. You …………drive now.
11 — I broke my leg. I ………… run.
12 — These shoes are too small. I ………… wear them.
13 — His father is very old. He ………… walk as fast as a young man …………
14 — They haven’t played basketball for a long time. They………… play now.
15 — I studied very hard. I ………….get a good mark in the examination.
D — Örnekten yararlanarak CAN yardımı ile istekte bulununuz:
I want you to give me your pen. Can you give me your pen, please?
1 — We want you to turn on the radio.
2 — I want him to come to my party.
3 — I want to read your book.
4 — I want you to open the window.
5 — We want to listen to the news.
6 — I want to help you.
7 — I want you to help me.
8 — He wants to park his car here.
9 — Ayşe wants to ask a question.
10 — We want to smoke here.
11 — I want you to lend me some money.
12 — He wants you to carry his suitcase for him.
13 — She wants us to persuade him to play the piano for her.
14 — I want to .look at that picture.
15 — We want to go to the cinema tonight.
E — örneklerden yararlanarak I CAN’T HELP deyimi ile cümleler kurunuz:
I can’t help feeling cold.
1 — worry about her.
2 — think about hiiu.
3 — laugh at him.
4 — wake up early.
5 — be late to work.
6 — get ill in the Spring.
7 — lose weight.
8 — say what I believe.
9 — read in bed.
10 — believe people.
F — Aşağıdaki örnekten yararlanarak olumsuz anlamda güçlü bir olasılık belirtmek için CAN’T BE, olumlu anlamda güçlü bir olasılık belirtmek için ise MUST BE yardımcılarını kullanınız:
1 — Is that shirt 200 L. or 500 L.? / 500 L. İt can’t be 200 L. It must be 500 L.
2 — I think she is German. / Spanish. She can’t be German. She must be Spanish
1 — Is he a mechanic or a butcher? / butcher.
2 — Is it Sunday or Monday today? / Monday.
3 — Is he tired or ill? / ill.
4 — Is that woman 30 or 40 years old? /40.
5 — Are they playing or fighting? / fighting,
6 — I think it is an English car? / American.
7 — I think he is the boss?/clerk.
8 — I think they are poor. / rich.
9 — I think they are enemies. / friends.
10 — I think we are in the wrong direction. / right.
11 — I think it is easier to make than to watch. / wathcing.
12 — I think it is pleasant to be short of money. / unpleasant.!
13 — I think it is safe to drive fast. / unsafe.
14 — I think that question is easy. / difficult.
15 — I think this is a Turkish song. / Indian.
G — Şimdi de yukardaki alıştırmaları CAN’T HAVE BEEN ve MUST HAVE BEEN yapıları ile kullanarak geçmiş zamana ait güçlü olasılık belirtiniz:
1 — Was that shirt 200L. or 500 L.? / 500 L.
It can’t have been 200 L. It must have been 500 L.
2 — I thought she was German. / Spanish.
She can’t have been German. She must have been Spanish.
Bir önceki yazımız olan Past Perfect Tense Active Passive başlıklı makalemizde Past Perfect Tense Active Passive, past perfect tense active passive kullanımı ve past perfect tense active passive kullanımı örnek cümleler hakkında bilgiler verilmektedir.